All my early life I heard that premodern Christianity was intolerant and ignorant in comparison with the great teachers of the Protestant Reformation. This is simply not true. One illustration will suffice. Theologians such as John Duns Scotus (1270-1308) and William of Ockham (1288-1348) developed new ideas, often quite very different ideas, but they never started new churches or got excommunicated. Different ways of understanding the faith were not only tolerated in premodern time but they were, in so many ways, celebrated. The reason for this breadth in theology is clear. Truth was not thought of as narrow and precise like mathematics.
A primary reason for this premodern flexible approach to interpretation is that Christians argued that Scripture was the root of all truth but the Scripture did not have a single, univocal meaning. Listen to how St. Augustine, one of the greatest orthodox minds in the Western Church, put this regarding the church’s reading of Genesis:
Although I hear people say “Moses meant this” or “Moses mean that,” I think it more truly religious to say “Why should he not have both meanings in mind, if both are true? And if others see in the same words a third, or a fourth, or any number of true meaning,s why should we not believe that Moses saw them all? There is only one God, who caused Moses to write the Holy Scripture in the way best suited to the minds of great numbers of men who would all see truths in them, though not the same truths in the each case.”
For my part I declare resolutely and with all my heart that if I were called upon to write a book which was to be vested with the highest authority, I should prefer to write it in such a way that a reader could find re-echoed in my words whatever truths he was able to apprehend. I would rather write in this way than impose a single true meaning so explicitly that it would exclude all others (The Confessions of St. Augustine, trans. Edward B. Pusey, 1962, 308).
The first time I read St. Augustine words above I realized how very different my approach to Scripture was from his. What I did not know was why. I sought out evangelical teachers to help me understand this problem and the answers I got were that God had one thing in mind and by good, historical, grammatical, exegetical hermeneutics we could see this one truth clearly. The problem with this answer, a problem that I later came to clearly see, was that it was not historically Christian. Furthermore, it was rooted in Enlightenment reason not in biblical realities.
The irony is that St. Augustine’s premodern reading of the Bible is a lot closer to a postmodern reading than a modern one. Augustine responds to those who think they know the exact and precise meaning of the Scripture in this way: